The Indonesian Military (TNI) is currently implementing the third strategic plan (Renstra) of the so-called Minimum Essential Force program to modernize its primary weapons systems (alutsista). By the end of the second Renstra in 2019, the Defense Ministry reported that the TNI had only modernized 63.19 percent of its alutsista compared to its goal of 75.54 percent, leaving 36.81 percent still to be modernized by 2024. 

To fulfill the MEF target, one available option is to buy preowned alutsista from other countries. This approach, however, has sparked debate on whether Indonesia should buy all of its alutsista brand new to ensure higher quality or to purchase second-hand weapon systems to ensure quantity and faster deployment.

Indonesia has bought numerous second-hand alutsista for all three services of the TNI, and has received several grants of decommissioned weapon systems.

The Indonesian Army has procured several types of used tracked armored vehicles because state-owned land systems maker PT Pindad has yet to master the technology of manufacturing tracked armored vehicles.

Leopard 2A4 main battle tank

Leopard 2A4 main battle tanksLeopard 2A4 main battle tanks (

The most controversial acquisition was the 2013 purchase of Leopard 2A4 main battle tanks (MBTs), which had been decommissioned by the Bundeswehr (German military).

The Indonesian government paid US$280 million for 153 armored vehicles consisting of 41 Leopard 2A4 MBTs and 61 Leopard 2 RI MBTs as well as 50 Marder 1A3 infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs).

The Leopard 2A4 is equipped with a 120 mm smoothbore gun and two machine guns and